Cardiovascular Disease

A study by Ye et al (2009) reported that all Asian ethnic groups in their study (including Chinese, Asian Indian, Filipino, and other Asian populations) were significantly less likely than Whites to report smoking, obesity, and binge drinking.


The International Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease in ASIA (InterASIA), conducted in 2000–2001, used a multistage cluster sampling method to select a nationally representative sample in China (Gu 2002). This study found that 27.2% of the Chinese adult population age 35 to 74 years, representing 129 824 000 persons, had hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age. Among hypertensive patients, only 44.7% were aware of their high blood pressure, 28.2% were taking antihypertensive medication, and 8.1% achieved blood pressure control (<140/90 mm Hg).

Chen (2008) examined the association between blood pressure (BP) and mortality among patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in China. They conducted a prospective cohort study among 4195 CVD patients aged 40 years and older. They found a strong, independent, and positive association between elevated BP (i.e. systolic BP higher than 120mmHg) and mortality among patients with a history of CVD. Data on hypertension in Chinese immigrants in the U.S. has been difficult to obtain.

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Wang et al (2007) looked at non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) in Asian patients using the CRUSADE trial data; they found that despite similar treatment, Asian patients with NSTE ACS have significantly higher bleeding risk even after adjustment for risk factors and body mass index. Similarly, Shen et al (2007) reported racial/ethnic differences in the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) among patients with atrial fibrillation. Compared with White patients, the hazard ratio for ICH was 4.06 for Asians, 2.06 for Hispanics, and 2.04 for blacks. These studies bring up the need to further explore the potential for ethnic variability in and risk with antithrombotic and anticoagulant susceptibility.