Influence of Historical Experiences

The lives of today’s Indian elders are likely to have been influenced by the history of oppression, repression, intergenerational anger, and intergenerational grief, experienced since North America was colonized by Europeans.

The disenfran-chisement, the tradition of extermination, the broken treaties, the forced marches of the 18th and 19th centuries, all were part of the context of the world and family experiences in which many spent their childhoods.

In addition, there were specific events that made dramatic impacts on individual lives. One of the most powerful influences was that of the Indian boarding schools.