1800 to 1849

1802: Georgia Compact

Thomas Jefferson signs the Georgia Compact, which includes support of Indian removal.

1824: Creation of Office of Indian Affairs

Office of Indian Affairs is created by the secretary of war, in the U.S. War Department. Army posts are used to supply annuities provided by treaty, and to provide services to Indians in the area.

1825: Treaty

Treaty of 1825 at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. Sioux, Sac and Fox, Menominee, Ottawa, Chippewa, Pottawatomi, Iowa, and Winnebago were prohibited from waging war against one another, and that the United States was the final arbitter of disputes.

1826: Treaty

Treaty of August 5, 1826, with the Chippewa. Article III stated: “ The Chippewa tribe grant to the government of the United States the right to search for, and carry away, any metals or minerals from any part of their country. But this grant is not to affect the title of the land, nor the existing jurisdiction over it. “ Deloria describes this inclusion in the treaty as “ the first clear-cut case of fraudulent dealings on the part of Congress “. ( Deloria, 1988 ), as this language allowed for the unreimbursed removal of copper and other minerals.

1827: Cherokee Nation Declaration of Independence

Cherokee Nation of Georgia declares itself “independent” and adopted a written constitution. Sequoyah invented an alphabet for the Cherokee language, and almost the whole tribe could read and write their language.

1828: Andrew Jackson Presidency

Andrew Jackson elected President of the United States. Executor of the federal Indian policy of removal of all eastern Indians to west of the Mississippi. President Jackson was well known for his military campaigns against the Indians.

1830: Indian Removal Act

Passed by Congress to “remove” all Indians to west of the Mississippi River and authorized the President to negotiate with eastern tribes for their relocation. One month later Governor Gilmer of Georgia announced that gold had been found on Cherokee lands and that the gold belonged to the state of Georgia. (Deloria & Lytle, 1983)

1831: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

US Supreme Court holds that Indian tribes are not foreign nations but “domestic dependent nations”. “As early as 1831, the Supreme Court characterized Indians as dependent on the United States for protection. Congress has implemented its responsibilities through treaties and statutes that have established a comprehensive program of special services to tribes and individuals. “ ( Cohen, 1982, in The NICOA Report, 1996, p. 12.)

1836: Treaty with the Ottawas and Chippewas

One of several treaties specifying medical care as partial compensation for Indian land and other resources ceded by treaty. Other treaties promised the “support of poor infirm persons”, or the “support and comfort of aged and infirm Indians”. ( John, R. and Baldridge, D., The NICOA Report, 1996, p.12 .)

1838: Trail of Tears

The Cherokee Trail of Tears begins. Four thousand Cherokee lost their lives in the forced migration from the southeastern states to land in Oklahoma and Kansas

1848: US-Mexico War

US defeated Mexico; California became part of the United States.

1849: Gold Rush

Mass genocide of Indians by miners and soldiers in California. The California Indian population declined by 82% (Heizer and Whipple, 1971) and is remembered by local descendants as one of the Indian Holocausts.